"Change the land suitable machine" is the hilly and mountainous area mechanization development cure policy
Moderate scale operation and mechanization of production are the main direction of China's agricultural modernization development at present and in the future. In today's high labor
costs, large-scale and mechanization are mutually reinforcing conditions. The core competitiveness of the same quality agricultural products lies in lower costs, otherwise the related
industries will inevitably shrink. The fundamental power for people to use machinery is to obtain higher labor productivity and economic benefits compared with manual labor.
The fundamental power for enterprises to research and develop new agricultural machinery is to have good market expectations and return on investment. In the face of these market
mechanisms, the plains, such as the hills and mountains do not have a special.
In recent years, agricultural mechanization in the plain areas of China has advanced by leaps and leaps, while mechanization in the hilly and mountainous areas is still developing
slowly. Although mechanization is basically popularized through the development of micro-plowing machines, there has been no great progress in the varieties and harvests in most
areas, and the comprehensive mechanization rate of farming and harvest is generally more than 30 percentage points higher than that in the plain areas. In China, hilly and
mountainous areas account for a large proportion of landforms, grain, oil and sugar crops also account for a large proportion, and are the main producing areas of characteristic
crops such as fruit and mulberry tea. Agricultural development is of great significance for meeting local self-sufficiency in grain and increasing the income of characteristic industries.
Therefore, hilly and mountainous areas cannot be ignored in the modernization of China's agriculture. As a direct means of reducing agricultural cost and increasing agricultural
efficiency, agricultural mechanization is urgently needed in hilly and mountainous areas. For a long time, many people believe that as long as the development and promotion of all
kinds of small and durable machinery, and strengthen the construction of some farmways, the hilly area mechanization problem will be readily solved. More and more facts have
proved that "machine is suitable for the land" is the palliative policy, the construction of farmways can only alleviate the access problem outside the land. Hilly and mountainous
agricultural machinery, due to the difficult research and development, thin profit, single model of machinery and tools market scale is small, the strength of agricultural machinery
enterprises are not willing to set foot in, in recent years in addition to the micro tillage and tea gathering machinery, other machinery is not good. Local agricultural machinery service
organizations also prefer to use medium and large machinery in pingba connected land service, open the farm machinery around the "chicken house" ground, high prices are reluctant
to do the machine. The micro plowing machine with the largest amount in hilly and mountainous areas is now basically one machine per household, but the micro plowing machine
has low efficiency and big vibration, which has liberated cattle and not liberated people. The machine of 4000 yuan or so can not be used for several years, which has not played a role
in improving labor productivity, and will also cause a large degree of waste of funds in the long run. According to a large sample questionnaire conducted by a research institution,
about half of the agricultural machinery departments in hilly and mountainous areas predict that the local comprehensive mechanization rate will only increase by about 1 percentage
point per year under the existing land conditions in the next 10 years. Thus it can be seen that the hilly and mountainous mechanization of the road is really a special task!
Since 2015, the competent department of agricultural mechanization in Chongqing has promoted the idea of mechanization in hilly and mountainous areas to realize the great
transformation from "land suitable for machines" to "land suitable for machines". On the basis of the feasibility test of multi-type geomorphic land plots, financial funds have been
used to guide large-scale operation owners to carry out mechanized transformation of cultivated land. Overall, the pilot work has achieved initial success. The main results are as
follows: first, the site conditions are rapidly improved, the slope of the modified land is slowed down, the dead Angle of operation is reduced, the mechanical route is lengthening,
the agricultural production machines and tools are mainly micro-plowing machines that directly cross to the large-scale tractors, sowing machines and harvesters in use in the
Huang-Huai-Hai plain. Second, farmers benefit from many ways. The reduced field banks increase the available arable land area. The high efficiency of mechanization has brought a
significant reduction in the employer's labor cost. The third is to explore the long-term mechanism of replicable, one-time arable land should be machine-made transformation,
geomorphic conditions of the land is not bad, use 2 months, the cost of an mu of about 2000 yuan, spread to 10 years, annual only 200-300 yuan, with appropriate subsidies, can
basically achieve the "current affordable, sustainable in the future". It is reported that many owners of large-scale operations are highly motivated and eager to try after visiting the
The author thinks, "change land to adapt machine" can be immediate effect, and once and for all, is a century-long plan, is the hilly and mountainous mechanization of the root of the
policy. With more arable land available, it will be much easier to solve the problems of inorganic availability, organic difficulty and underdeveloped social services, which have long
plagued the hills and mountains. The practical experience of Chongqing has strong promotion and replication value in other similar regions in China. At present, there are many
favorable conditions for promoting the mechanization of cultivated land in hilly and mountainous areas. First, the number of large-scale operators is increasing, with a relatively long
-term perspective, and they are very worried about the difficulty and cost of labor. They are eager to develop mechanization to reduce costs, and have an urgent desire to mechanize
land transformation. Second, the quantity of construction machinery, such as excavators, is sufficient in society, and the cost and efficiency of land modification are controllable. Third,
organic matter cultivation and fertilizer, soil deep pine and other recycling agricultural technology is relatively mature, can quickly restore the soil fertility, after the change of land can
do not reduce the yield. Fourth, local governments have greater autonomy in the overall use of agriculture-related funds such as those for high-standard farmland construction, and
funds may be available to facilitate such transformation. Five is as land approval in place, and where one field as a "land swap", tillage coupon, indeed uncertainty and other modes of
exploration success, farmers concerns for fear of not bright world and lost less, to scale operators and village collective group (village) as unit, after the first difficult, paddy field after
dry first, concentrated appropriate machine modification is getting more and more likely.
Farmers in hilly and mountainous areas have the habit of self-sufficient cultivation. As the old generation of farmers with land complex is unable to do anything, if the pace of mechan－
ization cannot keep up, the traditional crop cultivation with low economic value will shrink and wither, and the fruit mulberry tea will also weaken the competitiveness. It can be said
that no arable land should be mechanized, there will be no hilly agricultural mechanization, agricultural modernization. Look forward to a spark of Chongqing practice, rapid prairie fire.